Note: This version of the code is deprecated, and presented for historical reference only. The latest version of the code is the 2018 version.
This code went into effect as Bylaw 17 of the Bylaws of the ACM in 1972. It was superseded by the 1992 revision.
The text of the code presented here has been reconstructed from various sources, and may contain typos or transcription errors. See also:
- Eric A. Weiss. 1990. The XXII self-assessment: the ethics of computing. Commun. ACM 33, 11 (November 1990), 110-132. DOI: 10.1145/92755.92780
Berleur, Jacques J., and Klaus Brunnstein. “ACM Code of Professional Conduct and Procedures for Enforcement.” In Ethics of Computing: Codes, Spaces for Discussion and Law, 135–37. Springer, 2016.
ACM Code of Professional Conduct (1972)
Recognition of professional status by the public depends not only on skill and dedication but also on adherence to a recognized code of Professional Conduct. The following Code sets forth the general principles (Canons), professional ideals (Ethical Considerations), and mandatory rules (Disciplinary Rules) applicable to each ACM Member.
The verbs “shall” (imperative) and “should” (encouragement) are used purposefully in the Code. The Canons and Ethical Considerations are not, however, binding rules. Each Disciplinary Rule is binding on each individual Member of ACM. Failure to observe the Disciplinary Rules subjects the Member to admonition, suspension, or expulsion from the Association as provided by the Constitution and Bylaws. The term “member(s)” is used in the Code. The Disciplinary Rules of the Code apply, however, only to the classes of membership specified in Article 3, Section 4, of the Constitution of the ACM.
An ACM member shall act at all times with integrity.
EC1.1. An ACM member shall properly qualify himself when expressing an opinion outside his areas of competence. A member is encouraged to express his opinion on subjects within his areas of competence.
EC1.2. An ACM member shall preface an partisan statements about information processing by indicating clearly on whose behalf they are made.
EC1.3. An ACM member shall act faithfully on behalf of his employers or clients.
DR1.1.1. An ACM member shall not intentionally misrepresent his qualifications or credentials to present or prospective employers or clients.
DR1.1.2. An ACM member shall not make deliberately false or deceptive statements as to the present or expected state of affairs in any aspect of the capability, delivery, or use of information processing systems.
DR1.2.1. An ACM member shall not intentionally conceal or misrepresent on whose behalf any partisan statements are made.
DR1.3.1. An ACM member acting or employed as a consultant shall, prior to accepting information from a prospective client, inform the client of all factors of which the member is aware which may affect the proper performance of the task.
DR1.3.2. An ACM member shall disclose any interest of which he is aware which does or may conflict with his duty to a present or prospective employer or client.
DR1.3.3. An ACM member shall not use any confidential information from any employer or client, past or present, without prior permission.
An ACM member should strive to increase his competence and the competence and prestige of the profession.
EC2.1. An ACM member is encouraged to extend public knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of information processing, and to oppose any false or deceptive statements relating to information processing of which he is aware.
EC2.2. An ACM member shall not use his professional credentials to misrepresent his competence.
EC2.3. An ACM member shall undertake only those professional assignments and commitments for which he is qualified.
EC2.4. An ACM member shall strive to design and develop systems that adequately perform the intended functions and that satisfy his employer’s or client’s operational needs.
EC2.5. An ACM member should maintain and increase his competence through a program of continuing education encompassing the techniques, technical standards, and practices in his fields of professional activity.
EC2.6. An ACM member should provide opportunity and encouragement for professional development and advancement of both professionals and those aspiring to become professionals.
DR2.2.1. An ACM member shall not use his professional credentials to misrepresent his competence.
DR2.3.1. An ACM member shall not undertake professional assignments without adequate preparation in the circumstances.
DR2.3.2. An ACM member shall not undertake professional assignments for which he knows or should know he is not competent or cannot become adequately competent without acquiring the assistance of a professional who is competent to perform the assignment.
DR2.4.1. An ACM member shall not represent that a product of his work will perform its function adequately and will meet the receiver’s operational needs when he knows or should know that the product is deficient.
An ACM member shall accept responsibility for his work.
EC3.1. An ACM member shall accept only those assignments for which there is reasonable expectancy of meeting requirements or specifications, and shall perform his assignments in a professional manner.
DR3.1.1. An ACM member shall not neglect any professional assignment which has been accepted.
DR3.1.2. An ACM member shall keep his employer or client properly informed on the progress of his assignments.
DR3.1.3. An ACM member shall not attempt to exonerate himself from, or to limit, his liability to his clients for his personal malpractice.
DR3.1.4. An ACM member shall indicate to his employer or client the consequences to be expected if his professional judgement is overruled.
An ACM member shall act with professional responsibility.
EC4.1. An ACM member shall not use his membership in ACM improperly for professional advantage or to misrepresent the authority of his statements.
EC4.2. An ACM member shall conduct professional activities on a high plane.
EC4.3. An ACM member is encouraged to uphold and improve the professional standards of the Association through participation in their formulation, establishment, and enforcement.
DR4.1.1. An ACM member shall not speak on behalf of the Association or any of its subgroups without proper authority.
DR4.1.2. An ACM member shall not knowingly misrepresent the policies and views of the Association or any of its subgroups.
DR4.1.3. An ACM member shall preface partisan statements about information processing by indicating clearly on whose behalf they are made.
DR4.2.1. An ACM member shall not maliciously injure the professional reputation of any other person.
DR4.2.2. An ACM member shall not use the services of or his membership in the Association to gain unfair advantage.
DR4.2.3. An ACM member shall take care that credit for work is given to whom credit is properly due.
An ACM member should use his special knowledge and skills for the advancement of human welfare.
EC5.1. An ACM member should consider the health, privacy, and general welfare of the public in the performance of his work.
EC5.2. An ACM member, whenever dealing with data concerning individuals, shall always consider the principle of the individual’s privacy and seek the following:
- To minimize the data collected.
- To limit authorized access to the data.
- To provide proper security for the data.
- To determine the required retention period of the data.
- To ensure proper disposal of the data.
DR5.2.1. An ACM member shall express his professional opinion to his employers or clients regarding any adverse consequences to the public which might result from work proposed to him.